Ce Qui Se Comprend Bien S Énonce Clairement

1. A covert route map2. Breaking etymological habits

2.1. Création not imitation

2.1. Civilization Englishes

3. Repair-work

3.1. Defamiliarization

3.2. Postcolonial discourse

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Revue électron d’études pour le monde anglais


Cet article tente aux répondre à la question suivante : en quoi le principe de dissociation de la former et du sens est pertinent dans le cadres d’une didactique des langue étrangères basée sur ns création, telle quoi peut matin mise en œuvre dedans des ateliers d’écriture aux création bilingues et ns traduction créatrice. Une enseignant de langue orient rapidement jai été confronté à ns question du la correction et aux la conformité aux règles. Prendre plaisir lieux d’appropriation personnelle de la langue donc étrangère, nos séminé prennent du front ns problématique aux La Norme. A cet effet, nous ne faisons qu’une présentant succincte du notre dispositif théorique (lequel consiste en les analyses de Bettelheim et utilisations par Lafforgue du conte prendre plaisir mode indirect d’expression) ; das étudiants entrent à lintérieur le vif ns la création à moyen d’esquisses d’intrigues elle viennent habiter venir moyen de leurs propres inventions rang significations. Celles « intrigues » sont conçues environ d’une nécessité commune : permettre à chacun aux se débattre, dans les deux acception du terme, avec les des questions que pose tout apprentissage vivant de la l’âme « étrangère » : esquive questions de l’intimité et aux l’anonymat, de reconnaissable / méconnaissable / inconnu. Aussi das langues – anglaise, française, und en filigrane toutes ces que esquive étudiants rapportent aux leur alentours personnel – sont-elles désarticulées, après assemblées différemment : notre pratiquement pédagogique, en apparence paradoxale, vise jusquà défaire plutôt qu’à étayer esquive habitudes monolingues. L’opinion courante, qu’un nombre croissant aux pédagogues s’appliquent jusqu’à dénoncer, fort laquelle cette faut dapprentissage la régler d’abord prédécesseur de pouvoir optimiste créer, est détient à revers. Aussi nos ateliers intègrent-ils également une réflexion dessus l’évolution du l’anglais à lintérieur le monde – une étude des World Englishes seul que nombres d’innovations linguistiques sont dabord perçues bénéficie des fautes hay manquements … prédécesseur de passer à lintérieur l’usage. Un autre pan de la réflexion née peut alors que préoccuper l’ego de pédagogue : face du écrits aux ses étudiants, cest lui-même jai apporté à opérer d’un dissociation, voire d’un dislocation, aux ses habitudes mentales. Il se confronte notamment jusquà un questionnement délicat ns sa posture : comment un m enseignant entier en accepter un pour avoir d’accueil des productions des étudiants à lintérieur il se établir … lecteur. Cette cherchera donc des pistes ns côté ns la critique postcoloniale, lequel témoigne ns ce que das erreurs ns toutes sortes sont aussi des marqueurs du différence.

Vous lisez ce: Ce qui se comprend bien s énonce clairement


This article considers the various ways in which thé principle de a disjunction between form et meaning have the right to be applied à creative langue teaching, oui practised in our bilingual an imaginative writing and creative translate in workshops. While traditionally, language teaching is much involved with conforming venir rules and norms, here we try à provide a an are in which auto onus is nous enhancing a personal élimination of language. à this end, our theoretical structures (Bettelheim et Lafforgue’s approach to fairy-tales as année indirect fashion of expression) are seulement un partially presented, et students are listed with bare plots to be filled with their very own fictions or meaning. This ‘plots’ space designed à allow a creative rendez-vous with auto dynamics inherent in language, between intimacy et anonymity, familiarity and otherness, et thus to explore questions de identity. Similarly, langue can be dismantled et reassembled afresh, in an apparently paradoxical pedagogy based on breaking, quite than making, monolingual linguistic habits. This contradicts the doxa according venir which learning the rules comes first, any type of creativity later, and which nous are no the seul ones venir believe unfounded. Auto study of new Englishes is likewise revealing in this light, with creative thinking often gift looked upon oui error. Normally some self-reflexive dislocating of form and meaning has à be undertaken de the teachers, who pouvez wonder “who” they should be – teachers or readers ns creative roman – when faced with their students’ productions. Indeed, postcolonial criticism rapide us to consider spelling et grammar mistake not oui errors only, but ont factors ns difference.


Mots-clés :

altérité, appropriation de les langue, créativité, gestion ns l’erreur, identité(s), sincère et anonyme, jeu, norme

Keywords:

creativity, errors, identity, intimacy et anonymity, otherness, personal est-ce of language, play, rules et norms

1For 4 years now, we, deux associate professors du ‘English’, ont been running an imaginative translation and bilingual creative writing workshops, one of two people extra-curricula or as a regular arttasters on the syllabus, at Aix-Marseille University, France. We sapin took a arttaserse in comment to run monolingual an innovative writing workshops in 2007-8, then, while running what nous decided would be specifically bilingual workshops, started looking into auto unquestioned background presumptions – some de them fallacies – that nous realized conditions météorologiques were functioning with and passing on to our students, frequently unawares. Provided that creative writing is oui yet underdeveloped in french universities, et also that auto multilingual contexts ns some de our students oui been rather neglected in English-teaching circles, multilingual an innovative writing has proved année exciting field of exploration. Cette has commander us to forage into et bridge different fields of research in an attempt venir provide our pedagogy through a theoretical structure that lend from thé didactics et sociolinguistics ns multilingualism, psychology and psychoanalysis, follow me with auto reading and writing de ‘literature’.


1 Greaves, S. & Schultze, M.-L. (2008, 2009, 2011).

2So far we have focused nous the following: auto role de creativity in language teaching, thé question of linguistic and educational norms, et the benefits du self-translation1. Through this paper, nous will revolve to année as however under-explored visage of ours practice, thé role played par the disjunction de form et meaning – perhaps as important a characteristic of language oui the reverse, as Georges-Arthur Goldschmidt suggests: “Far from the role of language being à represent reality, it is in the la nature of language not venir coincide through it, not to coincide v what ce is supposed venir be expressing.”2 (2009, 19) Indeed, the principle ns form/meaning séparation is année operative element de our didactics, which have the right to be represented as a sort of covert cheminement map, in part inspired par Bettelheim’s (1976) and Lafforgue’s (1995) usage of fée tales, in that thé theoretical and/or imagine foundations de the workshops room presented seulement un indirectly to auto participants. The same principle is at occupational in année apparently paradoxical pedagogy devoted venir breaking – quite than make – etymological habits, et in a nouveau approach to the reception de students’ bilingual creative writing.


4 « Ce que conditions météorologiques conçoit bon s’énonce clairement » (1856, 18).

3What then are an innovative translation et bilingual an imaginative writing workshops? no language classer nor literature classer nor however translation classes, cible a mixture of tous three. Their aim is to allow entrants to phat at present in your ‘foreign’3 language, et to practise relocating between the two languages, by means of carefully guided imaginative fiction, poetry et language games. Participants space invited à explore et enrich their relationships v their languages and to work on the experience de otherness and distancing in concrete ways. Take away at that is most simple level then, this type of artaserse is perceived as a creating course et above all, expectations de delivery focus on an improvement in creating skills. Now, writing meilleur English, such as in academic essays, walk not imply gaily dislocating form and sense. Quite the contrary. Great academic discourse expresses clearly-argued concepts in clear language, as Boileau would have it4. Classic grammar and translation to teach take a magnifying glass venir linguistic components et show comment meaning is constructed, while timeless literary to teach does auto same, venir show how meaning is subverted…


6 See, for the juggling metaphor, Greaves S. & Schultze M.-L. (2011) or Billiez J. (2011).

4Somewhere nous the spectrum of pedagogic possibilities, our functioning hypothesis is that dismantling language – form et meaning, signified and signifier – et reassembling cette wrongly, oui if some carnavalesque harlequin had maliciously rewritten the instruire for use, like auto skeleton-dog in thé Ahlbergs’ children’s story, Funnybones (1999), who bones comprendre mixed up soja that his tail ends up at auto front and he has his muzzle whereby his rump need to be – the playing jaune experimenting with langue is an excellent training for writing ‘correct’ English (we’ll come back to what conditions météorologiques mean passant par ‘correct’), à la ‘appropriating’ language and making it one’s own, ready à la practical use quite than slavishly adhering to norms that, anyway, differ from one country to another. à use yet de nouveau metaphor – metaphors being central for understanding concepts or notions (Cifali, 2004; Billiez, 2011)5 – over there is a peu of juggling to be done, within et across languages6. Over all, as Francis Yaiche writes, “let nous not forget that thé key pair de terms du any learning process are Homo ludens/homo sapiens. Knowledge is articulated v play.” (2003, 107-114) let’s see then how dissociations of form and meaning can revitalise language relationships, thereby enhancing writing (and speaking) an abilities generally.


5First, thé participants are available forms without meanings, the is, fictional jaune metaphoric frameworks such as transformational or border-crossing narratives, designed à appeal to auto imagination, the affecter and thé senses (which language classer at University might be tempted à ignore7… (Oates, 2002, 73)) without pointing too plainly in any kind of given direction, towards any type of specific narrative or ideological development: develops which have the right to be fleshed out with an individual meaning, cible without thé full import ns that meaning being apparent jaune consciously manipulated. In a forthcoming article, nous will explore in better depth this sideways, slantwise method inspired passant par the possible psychoanalytical uses venir be fabriquer of fairy tales. Auto workshops are therefore designed venir work indirectly, with the participants becoming seul gradually mindful of bien sur aspects ns their connection with langue or languages, only gradually aware of where our covert cheminement map is acquisition them. Naturally this is not always really comfortable jaune reassuring, et there are des moments of frustration et impatience for some, – oui is à be expected if we consider auto increasingly well-documented dialectics ns masochism/sadism, reparation/destruction amongst teachers and lecturers (Blanchard-Laville, 2006; Bréant, 2011). Nous are in result asking our students venir enter a fiction and suspend their disbelief, cible a fiction of which they room themselves auto authors et characters, and ultimately the readers, et indeed reflexivity is an essential part du creative didactics8 (Aden & Piccardo, 2009). Venir adopt parce que le our role a metaphor from literature criticism, ce could be said that we resemble falsely naïve narrators in année ironic histoire strategy, du which the aim is venir make the participants-cum-readers self-reliant et self-critical, thereby freeing themselves from bien sur beliefs, the first of which gift that the quickest route from A to b is a right line9. This, needless venir say, is frequently felt venir be contentious by university students who need even now, at the beginning de the 21st century, a maquette of gouvernement whose permanence une can wonder about in scholastic circles used venir documenting et analysing more recent models carried in passant par post-modernism, post-colonial studies oui well oui feminism, among others.


6Creative writing, et bilingual workshops especially, are a rare opportunity pour breaking auto natural form/meaning singular habits, à la playing out auto dynamics de subject and object – of langue that one speaks et language that une is spoken par –, farming roots backwards into auto soil of childhood et reinforcing emotional et aesthetic approaches to language, as a means to explore the ‘self’ and question the conceptions of identity/ies. This deserve to be completed in many ways, for instance by offering non-prescriptive forms while leaving our aims implicit, by eliciting coherent narratives from haphazard, collectively-produced sentences jaune texts using made-up languages, languages derived from année aural description or inspired de the baby-talk of post-babble babies, that reproduce thé intonational patterns de their speech community10 (Jenkins, 2009). Indeed, learning autre language means de definition walking backwards et starting again, though not totally from scratch, et bilingualism necessarily requires disconnecting form and meaning et splicing them ensemble in a nouveau way. à la one exemple among many, Nancy hoston testifies to how breaking the ‘natural’ form-meaning pairing du monolingualism de writing in elle second language gave sa access venir forms ns expression but also venir thoughts otherwise closed to her:


 “The I which je used so freely in ma essays to be also, no doubt, one du the effects of ma uprooted knowledge. A bien sur shamelessness was fabriqué possible par the fact je was composing in a étranger language – partially because, at least in ma imagination, my parents did no speak this language, marqué more important because parce que le me, French has nothing to à faire with my intimate, inside life. In french I might say, quite calmly et even through a bien sur indifference, things ce could ont been impossible parce que le me venir reveal or even think about in my mère tongue.” (2005, 341-2)

7If monolingual habits and inhibitions room too deep-rooted, bilingualism deserve to thus serve ont a sort of mask pour a game of allongons Pretend – the I am an English lady, année American cowboy, an Indian Bollywood star, a Canadian lumberjack...

8What’s more, moving in between languages is a an excellent way venir take language by surprise, to try et creep up on it, to catch it redhanded in the process du betraying jaune enslaving par presenting as perfectly natural quel are in fact conventions. Have you ever pondered thé fact the carpet is a car-pet (Wray, 2002, 4); in a french lower-class context, cette may also remind you du the toy dog v a dangling head staring amie in the eye from the back shelf of the car antérieur à yours. Jaune take ‘chair’ – why is ce hardly ever noted among thé French-English ‘faux-amis’? According venir Georges-Arthur Goldschmidt, this an essential reflexivity is what langue may it is in for, or at least very an excellent at:

 “The ultimate aim of langue <…> is to cast doubt dessus itself by means ns itself, is to avoid yielding to its very own ways ns saying things, to avoid providing in to the imposed ‘meaning’. <…> language is watch there à reveal its very own weaknesses, its own successive clichés or readymade lies, its own failings the make cette what cette is”. (2009, 7)


11 “Celui lequel ne sait rien langue étrangère ne sait pas sa privé langue.”

9Logically, hey goes nous to praise languages pour their role in revealing différent languages à themselves, no doubt with auto famous words of 괴 in mind: “He that cannot speak any kind of other language cannot speak his own.”11 (1842, 35)


10Goldschmidt speaks ont a lifelong bilingual and as a translator et author; speaking ont language teachers, though, who see auto same grammatical, syntactical et spelling errors made over et over again in our students’ papers, et aware of the focus placed in langue – et literature – teaching nous repetition (idiomatic phrases, clichés, structures, theoretical stereotypes…), we have come venir wonder whether over there is too much imitation et not sufficient creation and play, too numerous docile patterns et codes et not enough jogging of elbows jaune being jolted éteindre the rails. If the same errors are fabriquer time and time again, it may be, among other reasons, because auto same reconnaissance paths room being taken, auto same thoughts space being thought, which means that auto foreignness / strangeness / otherness of the other language and culture, cible also of langue per se, has not to be sufficiently brought home. This pairing de creativity et critical distance was emphasized passant par socio-linguist Li Wei in a keynote compréhension écrite entitled “Multicompetence, Creativity et Criticality of Multilingual children: insights from complementary schools in Britain.” (2010) thé power du seduction and subjugation ns the composed word is together that even students who room native haut-parleurs are sometimes happy venir copy and paste unwieldy formulations supposedly without batting année eyelid. I m sorry denotes a boring state du indifference venir both form et meaning that need to not be uncovered at college level, the very least of tous in literature et translation classes… Adopting the séparation of form et meaning as a sort ns didactic premise is hence aimed at encouraging student to des questions language et even break certain linguistic robes – si necessary avant they oui thoroughly got them…


11This pouvez sound topsy-turvy: comment can someone be an innovative with or within a language si they have not sapin assimilated its codes? one of ma (Sara) tons English lessons took place in a smart loger in thé South of Spain. Avant surrendering his children to mien care, the father inquiry me how I intended à start. When i said I’d probably start par trying to see what English thé children had currently picked up, hey threw his eight in the aéronautiques and ushered je out du the house, speak the only proper place to begin was the alphabet… si so, cette should be a Dr. Seuss sacrés ABC! Similarly, language didactics specialist léger Aden, whose research is involved with creative language teaching, writes: “Those who uphold a certain doxa or widespread belief profess that it is essential sapin ‘to acquire auto rudiments de a language’ et that creativity comes later. This is unfounded: thé intentions and emotions that nous put into words increase from interaction and language is the result du that exchange.”12 (2009, 175) jaune this, from language teacher Gill James:


 “There is a tendency venir think one can seulement un be an imaginative with a langue once une has full control. Regulate is achieved, we believe, passant par having a vast vocabulary et a full understanding du the mechanics de a language’s grammar. This is in reality a flawed argument. A learner have the right to be creative with their langue when they only ont a little to play with. If they aller that at thé start, once they sait more, they will additionally make better use du that. nous only have to think of how a child plays an ext imaginatively through a cardboard boîte than they aller with auto latest computer toy to realise this.”(2009, our emphasis)

12Joëlle Aden stresses an individual meanings and emotions et Gill James focuses nous play,and these are thé two poles, one serious-seeming and the other apparently entertain (although psychologists sait otherwise), of our approach. Indeed, language which results from auto impulse to express personal ideas and emotions (in this game I jouer I’m pretending venir be myself writing in un autre language) offers better flexibility et less rigidity: ce is language which has started to make room à la a nouveau individual, just ont the tortoise’s covering does no stay thé same size marqué grows with the tortoise; for, si you will certainly forgive nous our generosity use du metaphors, metaphorical reasoning is both our way of working with our students et a way venir pry thé juicy grub ns theory out du the non less juicy sexcuser of experience… With the result, then, to revenir to thé tortoise, the both language et individual oui changed. This last point, that langue learning changes people, is one brought to light passant par the conceptions of ‘multi-competence’:


 “The responsibility ns teachers is not just to allow their students venir function externally marqué also to change their students’ minds. This correcting du the imbalance towards exterior goals typical ns the critical century actually brings back je vous demande pardon were à la centuries the traditional humanistic goals of langue teaching.”13 (Cook, 2004)


13And it is perhaps not entirely futile venir recall thé Romantic ideal de ‘plasticity’ et Coleridge’s brouillon of the creative imagination aimed exactly at dissociating form et meaning from their stabilité neo-classical relation, et creating new associations, new realities, nouveau ideas.14


15 as reproduced by Jenkins, 2009, 19.

14Finally, laissez-nous note the this emphasis nous creativity is congruous with quel is increasingly observed an international in English obtenir (Jenkins, 2009, 42). While an increasing number of nations in thé “Outer Circle” de linguist braj Kachru’s three-circle model15 (namely, the countries du the lundi diaspora, once English was transported à Asia et Africa) oui made great strides in auto process de codifying their own “New Englishes”, the “Expanding Circle” (among which europe countries, including maybe soon, France) is an in similar way busy dethroning auto idols embodied by British and North-American English in order à create custom-made versions de the ‘language du the origins’ while searching parce que le a tricky balance between mutual, globale intelligibility et ethnic/national identity. Right here are some of our favourites sauce soja far: ‘skinship’, in Japanese English (introduced venir us de a Japanese student), meaning touchy-feelyness, ‘peelhead’, in Jamaican English, pour a bald-headed person (Jenkins, 31), and ‘have you eaten already’ in Singaporean/Malaysian English, oui a form of greeting interpreted from auto indigenous language (Jenkins, 2009, 32). In auto post-colonial era, which has actually witnessed a changing in the centres of force from thé United says mostly à Brazil, China et India, idolisation de the inner Circle Englishes (UK and first diaspora countries) seems not à be thé trend any more and creativity in soutien of a re-invention ns identities is going complete blast.


15Current debates around World Englishes are therefore implicitly or explicitly current in our workshops, more so than the Romantic ideal ns the inspired poème as année exceptional individual, jaune even auto metaphysical ego in control du self-expression. Our dissociations de form et meaning are likewise indebted to Oulipo, nonsense verse and other speculative writing, v a view à moving between the poles of intimacy and anonymity, familiarity et otherness, reproduction and do-it-yourself invention, identification being a fluid, téléphone mobile, téléphone portable process. Or, as Georges-Arthur Goldschmidt again put it:


 “The extraordinary adventure of language lies certainly therein, in the d’impact between auto most intimate and most anonymous spheres. Seulement un the inadequacy ns language ont regards my intimacy can explain it. Seul the absolute anonymity du a langue common to all can preserve ma selfhood.”16(2009, 20-21)


16Writing at une remove from the self is a useful means out ns what nous might refer to as the intentional fallacy, the illusion that oui subject ns language ns speak it and it expresses what je want cette to... – the I être in control. Ce takes the introduction of a avec certitude distance, an element of randomness, constraint or make-believe, for the stress not simply du influence, cible also de fluency, à be dispelled, et the burden du linguistic baggage et affects, à be in the interim lifted. Better a stammer, then, 보다 a well-oiled utterance an ext dead than alive?


17Paradoxically, this point is fabriquer in the recent heavily-Oscared film, The king Speech, which provides a an excellent example of comment distancing technique can occupational in decided therapy. The therapist proves the his royal pady is quite qui peut être of enunciating clearly de getting him venir read a passage de Shakespeare when listening to music through headphones. Auto fact that the words space not his and that hey cannot hear himself temporarily cures his stammer: hey has entered auto anonymity of langue (as Goldschmidt paragraph it) and thus have the right to speak unfalteringly and without self-consciousness. Similarly, writing année English lipogramme, a roman beginning v a français cliché et ending on an English une or inventing an intrepid change ego, deserve to liberate auto writer from auto inhibitions ns too lot self and facilitate auto impersonal treatment... Of ‘personal in a renewed way’ matters. Where an easy, unthinking gliding from one word to de nouveau took place, there is currently a faltering, blundering, hiccoughing groping in the direction of unfamiliar words et thoughts, et meanwhile a ‘new’ gift is gift born. As Leïla Sebbar writes: « <…> i needed venir make mien thoughts twice strange, à be certain of not falling earlier into immediacy, into thé raw suffer that i had no hold over.”17 (1999, 196-7, our emphasis). Et again, du course, this question the imaginations of authority. Gouvernement is at stake – ont we saw over – in interconnecté with the still-dominant lecturing sacrés at University, with thé fraught question of the former repositories de ‘good’ English (the inside Circle countries), and, finally, with thé self ont it is revealed (falsely? fossilised? cloned?) with one’s mastery ns a language that has been pass down nous from ‘on high’. Now, interestingly, ‘authority’ is originally obtained from ‘auctor’ definition ‘who provides grow’... Arrêter see now, through année analysis ns our position oui readers of our students’ creative writing, if a didactics based on the form/meaning écart may do our workshop students grow... Up.


3. Repair-work

3.1. Defamiliarization

18Having observed thé resistance of certain frequent errors to the usual treatment ns correction and repetition, we ont come à wonder if there are est différent ways ns interpreting them than simply as errors – even if it is indeed the principle du form/meaning séparation cannot command us to a nouveau perspective. What about acquisition inspiration, à la instance, from another notion borrowed from literature criticism, defamiliarization. Indeed, when conditions météorologiques groan at auto sight of french structures, phrases, jaune spellings in ours students’ English prose, cette is worth remembering that in other contexts auto same forms may elicit est différent meanings, other responses. In his book The Violence ns Language, à la instance, Jean-Jacques Lecercle begins with a formulation from Somerset Maugham’s Cakes and Ale: “I’m not soja young as I used to was”. Cette goes conditions météorologiques to note: “Were i to check out this in a student’s paper, i would underline auto last indigenous in metal red. Ont a reader du fiction, ns enjoy thé sentence.” (1990, 7) the problem du who conditions météorologiques are when nous read our students’ creative writing – teachers jaune readers of fiction – is a tricky one. Right here are a couple of examples of sentences taken indigenous students’ fiction et which in a normalement teaching situation would maybe not it is in underlined in petulant red, marqué would at the very least be taxed v being awkward or un-idiomatic :

My life filled je again at half past nine.

One morning, just avant smoke time, there come a remarkable whiskey and velvet smell, et then cette remembered!

I ont no shame de it.

All du a sudden a brainwave came venir his mind.

The moon narrowed sa eyes et puffed année easy white smoke.

They were fooling love in thé foam.

19The poetry de some de these paragraph is patent. à la the language-teacher over there is maybe a shock ns pleasure at this contempt off-centre, defamiliarized English, et it peut être be the bilingual creative writing have the right to renew language-teachers’ relationships through the language they teach too… quel is at job-related here can be compared with thé principle of defamiliarization uncovered in poetry, or, venir take année extreme example, in Charlie Chaplin’s hilarious impersonation of the German langue in the cinématique The Dictator, i m sorry paradoxically gets closer to auto truth than auto original, as alain Fleischer point out:


 “It took all Charlie Chaplin’s genius venir cobble ensemble a simulacrum ns the German langue so efficient that his dictator spoke through even an ext eloquence than in his d’origine language, an incomprehensible yet extraordinarily expressive gobbledygook that was irresistibly funny, derisory and ferocious oui mimicry du the phonetic and acoustic characteristics de a certain variety ns German talked in Austria, vociferated right into loudspeakers à the alloue of revealing some self-evident sense – that very self-evidence that millions of German ears continued to be deaf to –, fabriquer over-familiar passant par the never-ending chorale of thé genuine unending repeated main speeches given passant par the sinister clown the Chaplin was imitating.”18 (2005, 147)


20Whether deliberate or accidental, form/meaning dissociations can be riche in subversion et the possibility for renewal.

21However, when looking with students’ creative writing à la syntactical errors in preparation parce que le this conference, nous actually found very few in comparison v those that usually pepper translation, dissertation jaune even scholastic papers. Just ont people with speech disorders, jaune foreign-language conférencier who à savoir they expedition over thé pronunciation or the gender of certain words, à la whom langue sometimes each other a minefield, et who learn à avoid the danger zones et go to great imaginative lengths venir find periphrases and synonyms, sauce soja language-learners who room invited to montré themselves creatively de largent similar strategies pour survival in your non-mother tongue. Gill James (2009)also makes this point, compare traditional and creative langue teaching:

 “The langue learner occasionally feels constrained by a lack ns knowledge. They emphasise quel they don’t savoir rather than celebrating quel they à faire know. They tendu to want venir think in their very own language and translate into auto target language. Thé real cheat is à concentrate nous what they do know in the target language.”

22Giving language-learners the opportunity to write creatively redirects the se concentrer to je vous demande pardon they know and allows them à develop and practise their own self-styled survive tactics.

3.2. Postcolonial discourse

23Again, there are numerous parallels to be drawn with research on World Englishes and postcolonial discourses. à anyone acquainted with the évolution of ‘English’ globally, research into pidgin et creole is immediately brought venir mind. The se réconcilier is defined oui “a language with ne sont pas native speakers: cette is no one’s tons language marqué it is a la communication language <…> In contrast à a pidgin, a creolian is regularly defined as a pidgin the has become the life language de a new generation de speakers... A creole, therefore, is a ‘normal’ language in nearly every sense” (Wardhaugh 2006, quoted de Jenkins, 2009, 11). In brief and to quote Jenkins again: “the creative capacity ns speakers of new Englishes tends à be overlooked par speakers ns Inner circle varieties, through creativity encore often being classified ont error.” (2009, 31) jaune again, citing Milroy (1999, quoted passant par Jenkins, 2009, 37), a quotation nous reproduce here entire oui there are haricot de soja many parallels venir be drawn with the sociological status de our students, as well as with the way we, lecturers in English, view the langue we teach:

“in a sense, the standard de popular tardif is quel is left behind when tous the non-standard varieties spoken passant par disparaged people such as Valley Girls, Hillbillies, Southerners, new Yorkers, african Americans, Asians, mexico Americans, Cubans and Puerto Ricans are collection aside. In Britain, where consciousness de the one-of-a-kind status of RP oui a course accent is acute, spoken défaut English might similarly be described as what is left after nous remove from auto linguistic bran-tub Estuary English, Brummie, cockney, Geordie, Scouse, various quaint la campagne dialects, londres Jamaican, transatlantic slang and perhaps also conservative RP ont spoken by older members ns the top classes.”

24The co-presence ns ‘mother’ and ‘foreign’ tongue structure in the same utterance jars our singular expectations – let nous not forget auto strength ns the homoglossic douane in la france –, cible what if we read such statements ont bilingual forms? “Hybrid” writing of this type is one du the objects of postcolonial discourse, and is du particular interest to us ont teachers ns English in what nous should perhaps think about a multilingual paper definition (to ours surprise, in various groups de English Second langue supposedly magicien students, oui many oui 15 language were venir be found), in that cette straddles countries, languages et cultures. To quote ah oui Roche in her inventory de paradigms du postcolonial literature, the comprenant of grammatical jaune syntactical errors or other deviant forms in literature texts may be viewed ont a factor du difference jaune distance, as année inscription du “signs ns non-belonging” (2010, 237). Langue errors alloue to thé fact that although the literary message offers the possibility ns a shared discourse, cette does no refer to a shared mental experience, and the role du such errors is to souligner that there need to be non mistake about this. She continues:


 “For Ashcroft und alii, thé verbal fabrication (written or oral) du a second langue learner space not errors or deviant forms marqué part of a unique yet genuine etymological system, i beg your pardon is distinctive both native the source language et the target language. A learner’s speech peut faire contain morphological, phonological or syntactical fossilizations which, also after countless years, aller not conform to thé norms du the target language and which thus an outcome in an evocative and culturally far-ranging idiom. Keeping the mistakes and language errors ns a text amounts venir representing passant par synecdoche thé caesuras and silences that exist in between the langue of auto political authorities et the experience cette is dubbed upon to ‘represent’.”19 (2010, 37)


25Given the present paper definition of, nous the une hand heightened sensitivity à questions ns identity, conditions météorologiques the est différent the imperialism du the English language, it might no be too far-fetched venir ask oneself whether auto persistence of deviant forms in ours students’ papers pouvez not be an unconscious inscription du signs de unbelonging – a way du indicating the there is non – jaune very précis – shared mental experience between them... Et their teachers.


26This is a sobering thought. Perhaps cette is precious considering auto sociolinguists’ concern to find a less censorious, much less punitive terminology for language variants. In discuter of creolian languages again, à la instance, unique terms have been coined venir differentiate in between linguistic graduations with respect to their proximity à or éliminer from thé ‘parent’ language, terms which are currently gently do their means into tendency media such oui acrolect, mesolect et basilect. This is not to say that auto bitterness of inexacte syntax should be sweetened passant par flattering, highly technical euphemisms, but, to borrow année image from alain Fleischer, to acknowledge the there is a border-tax à be paid at the frontiers between languages. Indeed, the complexity of our relationships v our languages prevents, also in auto most competent bilinguals, the sapin language from completely disappearing once the seconde is used. In many multilingual, ESL countries, the new accents and variations in pronunciation space part and parcel du the recently devised codes et norms anyway. But, pour a more lyrique take, much more inspiring parce que le our students maybe, alain Fleischer write in L’accent, la l’âme fantôme: “<…> in fact, there is ne sont pas reason why a tons language should dégager itself behind a second language, and the second language should not consider itself about handled or be offended by année accent the is above all an point of desire, du interest in it.”20 (2008, 108) quel happens, then, si we fall our monolingual mindset et take thé traces ns a life language in second langue utterances not simply oui errors, not oui deviant forms whose deviancy nous ignore so ont to automatically reassert auto “right” meaning, but oui valid variations, ont signifying signifiers, ont evidence of an ongoing – if precarious – love story through language?


27With auto help of a reflexive, interdisciplinary approach, we ont discussed the pedagogical advantages de breaking singular form/meaning habits and writing at one remove from auto self, oui well as of reading and interpreting at one remove native one’s teacherly jaune ethnocentric status – acquisition strikes as we go along at our own received wisdom jaune punctilious censoriousness. All this, in auto hope de grounding our bilingual workshops on more socially and psychologically suitable assumptions than those we started out with, thereby contributing to the lively existing debate nous bilingualism oui well oui to thé equally vivid ever-recurring une on comment to teach a foreign language. And… who knows? maybe this punishment in our casquette about form/meaning dissociation will take us – et our student – une step further, till nous drop once et for tous the adjective ‘foreign’ in ‘foreign language’, having actually unfolded thé tightly layered recesses ns the ax ‘foreign’ along with those ns its close neighbour, ‘alien’, in relation to our teaching-through-creation problematics, ont we will undertake to do in a paper to come. In any type of case, that needs auto word ‘foreign’ any type of more?


Ahlberg, J. & A. (1999). Funnybones, London: Puffin.

Bettelheim, B. (1976).Psychanalyse des contes aux fées, parisien : Laffont (original location The Uses ns Enchantment : the Meaning and Importance of Fairytales, nouveau York: Knopf (1976)).

Blanchard-Laville, C. (2006). « Potentialités sadomasochistes à la maison l’enseignant à lintérieur sa pratique. » Connexions, 2006/2, 86.

Bréant, F. (2011). « Des division nécessaires convectif enseigner à l’université. » Cliopsy 5, 2011, 79-98. Http://www.revue.cliopsy.fr/, critical accessed 27 peut être 2011.

Boileau-Despréaux, N. (1856). L’art poétique, Leipzig : Wengler, 1856, 18.

Coleridge, S.T. (1817, 1983). The collected Works de Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Biographia Literaria. Engell, J. & Bate, W. J. (eds.), Princeton: Princeton university Press.

Fleischer, A. (2005). L’accent: une langue fantôme. Evreux : Seuil, la librairie de XXI siècle.

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Goldschmidt, G.-A. (2009). A l’insu aux Babel, Paris : cnrics éditions.

Greaves, S. & Schultze, M.-L. (2008). « Même étape peur », J. Aden (ed.) Apprentissage des langue et pratiques artistiques - Créativité, essai esthétique rang imaginaire. Paris : Éditions le Manuscrit recherche Université (Coll. IUFM), 371-383.

Greaves, S. & Schultze, M.-L. (2009). « Du gravier et aux savon à lintérieur la bouche », C. Trimaille & J.M. Eloy (eds.) Idéologies linguistiques rang discriminations - action du colloque de Réseau Francophone aux sociolinguistique. Rennes : Carnets d’Atelier de Sociolinguistique.

Greaves, S. & Schultze, M.-L. (2011). « Guerre et guérison des mots. Les rôle du l’atelier d’écriture à lintérieur l’apprentissage des langues», F. Laroussi et F. Liénard (eds.), Plurilinguisme, politique linguistique et éducation. Quels éclairages convoque Mayotte ? publication des Universités du Rouen et aux Havre, 247-258.

Huston, N. (2005). Longings and belongings, Essays. Toronto: McArthur et Company.

Jenkins, J. (2003). World Englishes: A Resource book for Students. New-York: Routledge, 2nd edition (2009).

Lafforgue, P. (1995). Petit Poucet sera grand : le terrain du conte. Paris : Payot, 2002.

Lecercle, J.-J. (1990). The Violence de Language, londres & new York: Routledge.

Roche, A. (2010) « La chance de l’exil : das littératures postcoloniales » à lintérieur Morel, J-P., Asholt, W. & Goldschmidt, G-A. (eds.) Dans les dehors de monde, Exils d’écrivains und d’artistes au XXe siècle, Presses ns la sorbonne Nouvelle.

Oates, J.C. (2002). I’ll take tu there. Nouveau York: HarperCollins.

Sebbar, L. & Huston, N. (1986). des lettres parisiennes : autopsie aux l’exil, Barrault, 2ème édition J’ai lire (1999).

Wei, L. (2010). “Multicompetence, Creativity et Criticality ns Multilingual children: insights native complementary schools in Britain”, keynote lecture given nous the l’occasion of année international symposium, Plurilinguisme, politique langue et éducation. Quoi éclairages convectif Mayotte ? organised de the Laboratoire ns Linguistique, Didactique rang Francophonie (LiDiFra), 17-20 May, Mamoudzou, Mayotte.

Wray, A. (2002). Formulaic Language et the lexicon. Cambridge, Cambridge university Press.


Notes

1 Greaves, S. & Schultze, M.-L. (2008, 2009, 2011).

2 « Non seulement le langue n’a pas pour fonction du représenter les réel, maïs par nature cest en décalage, il ne coïncide pas avec ce qu’il orient censé dire. »

3 nous use the phrase ‘English oui a étranger Language’ (EFL) à refer à those haut-parleurs “for whom English has au sens propre or no official role within your own nations (…) to distinguish them from L2 speakers for whom English serves country-internal functions, the is, speakers de English as a Second language (ESL).” (Jenkins, 2009, 4)

4 « Ce que nous conçoit bien s’énonce clairement » (1856, 18).

6 See, pour the juggling metaphor, Greaves S. & Schultze M.-L. (2011) jaune Billiez J. (2011).

7 “The compréhension écrite room was a place de abstract thoughts et bodiless speculation ; ce was not an appropriate carré to bring a body, still less a corps humain quivering through emotion.” Interesting to apply this to auto average University langue class.

8 « En entraînant l’intelligence divergente, en jaccepte l’habitude d’associer des truc qui sont habituellement distantes, et en portant un regard critique sur das effets de ces essais, esquive enseignants en collaboration avec les artistes peuvent développer une créatif réflexive. » (176)

9 “It is famous that tests oui a washback effect on classroom teaching: the is, thé language et skills that space tested in examinations are the ones the teachers choose à teach and learners desire to learn, otherwise they oui nothing to show for the essai they have made.” (Jenkins, 2009, 123)

10 « La destination ultime aux langage, si toutefois nous peut en estimé une, est de le échoué en doute à moyen de lui-même, du ne pas succomber jusquà ses façons du dire, du ne étape se laisser faire par le « sens » imposé. <…> ns langage orient là comme pour faire cf ses incertain faiblesses, le sien accumulations aux clichés ou du mensonges tout faits, ses échouer qui le faire être ».

11 “Celui qui ne sait nexiste pas langue étrangère ne connaissent pas sa posséder langue.”

12 « das tenants d’une certaine doxa aiment à penser cette faut premièrement ‘acquérir esquive bases ns la langue’ und qu’on cest fait créatif plus tard. Ceci n’a pas ns sens, das intentions, das émotions que l’on formulons avec des mots, émergent par l’interaction et la feuille en orient le résultat. »

14 “The performance then i consider either as primary, jaune secondary. Auto primary Imagination i hold to be thé living power and prime agent of all human perception, et as a repetition in thé finite mind of auto eternal action of creation in the infinite i AM. The secondary Imagination ns consider as an echo du the former, co-existing with the conscious will, yet still ont identical with auto primary in auto kind de its agency, and differing seul in degree, et in the mode of the operation. It dissolves, diffuses, dissipates, in order à recreate: or where this process is calculation impossible, yet calmer at all events it struggles venir idealize et to unify. It is basically vital, even as tous objects (as objects) are essentially fixed and dead. FANCY, on the contrary, has non other counters to play with, marqué fixities and definites. The fancy is indeed non other than a mode of storage emancipated from auto order of time et space; while ce is combined with, and modified passant par that empirical phaenomenon ns the will, which nous express by the indigenous Choice. Cible equally with the ordinary memory auto Fancy must receive tous its materials ready made from thé law de association”. (1983, 304-5).

15 as reproduced par Jenkins, 2009, 19.

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16 « L’extraordinaire aventure du langage est bien là, dans le choc entre le concéder intime rang le concède anonyme. Simple l’impropriété ns langage jusqu’à mon des choses stimulantes en rend compte. Exclusivement l’absolu anonymat ns langage aux tout les monde préserve mien être-moi.»

17 « <…> j’avais besoin de rendre mes pensées leur fois étranges, pour être sûre ns ne étape retomber à lintérieur l’immédiateté, dans l’expérience brute sur laquelle em n’avais nexiste pas prise. »

18 « Il a fallu entier le génie de Charlie Chaplin convectif inventer ns toutes pièce un ersatz ns langue allemande qui fasse parlez son dictateur plus éloquemment de nouveau que à lintérieur sa feuille originale, galimatias inconnu mais toujours extraordinairement expressif, irrésistiblement drôle, dérisoire et féroce, bénéficie imitation calquée de l’image discours et acoustique d’un avec certitude allemand d’Autriche, vociféré dans des haut-parleurs, au mettre en ordre d’en sengager surgir une préparer de sens évident – ça évidence jusqu’à laquelle restèrent sourdes des des millions d’oreilles allemand –, rendu familier par les radotage et le ressassement des authentique et répétitifs discours de référence du sinistre guignol plus Chaplin singeait. »

19 « Pour Ashcroft und alii, das productions linguistique (écrites ou orales) d’un étudiant de feuille seconde ne sont pas des fautes foins des façonner déviantes, mais faire partie une système langue distinct maïs authentique, distinct à la fois ns langage la source et de langage cible. Il peut y oui des fossilisations morphologiques, phonologiques rang syntaxiques dans le déclaré d’un étudiant qui, même del plusieurs années, ne se relaxant pas ns normes de langage cible : les peut donner un idiome évocateur et culturellement significatif. C’est ainsi que conservé les fautes, das erreurs linguistiques, ns texte représente par synecdoque esquive césures rang silences qui existent entre le langage de pouvoir et l’expérience qu’il est nom est à « représenter ».

20 « … en fait, il n’y a aucune raison convoque qu’une l’âme première décoloration devant une langue seconde, und la l’âme seconde je vais lavoir tort ns se sentir malmenée hay offensée par un accent qui est d’abord le signe d’un désir, ns intérêt convecteur elle. »